Visible gross haematuria is urine that is visibly discoloured by blood or blood clot. It may present as urine that is red to brown, or as frank blood. As little as 1 mL of blood can impart colour to 1 litre of urine. Visible haematuria, even when transient or asymptomatic, may indicate a significant disease process and always requires further investigation. The spectrum of aetiologies has a significant age-dependence, whereby the work-up of haematuria can differ between children, adults under the age of 35 years, and adults aged 35 years or older. Patients with visible haematuria represent a higher-risk group for urological malignancy than those presenting with non-visible haematuria.
Isolated Hematuria - Genitourinary Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition
Seeing blood in your urine can be alarming. While in many instances the cause is harmless, blood in urine hematuria can indicate a serious disorder. Blood that you can see is called gross hematuria. Urinary blood that's visible only under a microscope microscopic hematuria is found when your doctor tests your urine. Either way, it's important to determine the reason for the bleeding. Gross hematuria produces pink, red or cola-colored urine due to the presence of red blood cells. It takes little blood to produce red urine, and the bleeding usually isn't painful.
What to know about blood in urine (hematuria) in females
Although routine screening for bladder cancer is not recommended, microscopic hematuria is often incidentally discovered by primary care physicians. The American Urological Association has published an updated guideline for the management of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, which is defined as the presence of three or more red blood cells per high-power field visible in a properly collected urine specimen without evidence of infection. The most common causes of microscopic hematuria are urinary tract infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and urinary calculi.